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Zig’s Place Chat and News Sunday PM 4-4-21

Zig:  Welcome to zig’s place, a chat room for dinar speculators and others….discuss any topic that you wish here

Butterfly   Agricultural Value Chain Study in Iraq 4th April 2021 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Iraq (FAO) and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) released today ‘Agricultural value chain study in Iraq: Dates, Grapes, Tomatoes and Wheat.’

This important review covering 2019-20 was conducted with the aim of identifying priority needs and interventions associated with the rehabilitation and long-term competitiveness of Iraq’s agricultural sector through an analysis of market linkages and bottlenecks in key value chains.

“We have produced a comprehensive study for the sector that provides a lot of insights into a number of prospective value chains for investments. We have come to realize that we need to have a holistic approach if we want to be successful. This requires us to consider weaknesses across the whole value chain and form partnerships to address the various needs. This would for sure provide us with the best chances for success, and create many sustainable jobs,” said Dr. Salah El Hajj Hassan, FAO Representative in Iraq.

butterfly  FAO and WFP together with the REACH Initiative conducted a cross-national market and gender-sensitive value chain analysis in Iraq, using desk reviews and analysis of secondary data, supported by individual interviews, focus group discussions with farmers, and key informant interviews with actors and experts along each value chain.

The findings include the need to improve services required for the agriculture sector, identify the requirements at different stages of the production cycle, unlocking investments to improve agricultural practices in order to increase the revenue for farmers and traders, in addition to highlighting the importance of strengthened cooperation and collective action in marketing, branding, packaging and procurement.

“This analysis identifies the opportunities to better market and add value to these key foods in Iraq – dates, grapes, tomatoes and wheat,” said WFP Representative in Iraq Abdirahman Meygag. “Together with the government, partners and communities, FAO and WFP are supporting the long-term market competitiveness of these four foods, which will have positive effects throughout the food sector.”

The study also recommends identifying new opportunities for public-private partnerships to more strategically facilitate the acquisition and use of fit-to-purpose resources to advance the agricultural sector in Iraq. https://www.iraq-businessnews.com/2021/04/04/agricultural-value-chain-study-in-iraq/

Dave butterfly Iraq……Used to be the agricultural Mecca of the Middle East

butterfly  https://www.thenationalnews.com/mena/iraq/iraq-airways-to-start-direct-flights-to-abu-dhabi-in-may-1.1196737 Iraq Airways to start direct flights to Abu Dhabi in May

Flights between Baghdad and Dubai have been operating for over a decade through Emirates Airline and Fly Dubai

Passengers wearing protective masks wait for flights at the departure hall of Baghdad international airport. AFP

Mina Aldroubi  April 4, 2021   Iraq Airways plans to start direct flights to Abu Dhabi next month, the company said as Prime Minister Mustafa Al Kadhimi headed to the UAE.

Mr Al Kadhimi has been trying to boost ties between Iraq and Gulf neighbours.

Baghdad needs the support of Gulf states to revive its economy that has been battered by years of conflict and war.

“Direct flights between Baghdad and Abu Dhabi will begin early May,” the company said, according to Iraqi state media.

Flights between Baghdad and Dubai have been operating for over a decade through Emirates Airline and Fly Dubai.

The airlines fly to Baghdad, Erbil, Basra and Najaf.

Flights to Iraq were halted last year due to the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic but were resumed in July.

Mr Al Kadhimi arrived in Abu Dhabi on his first official trip to the UAE after assuming office last May.

Iraq and the UAE maintain strong relations, especially as Baghdad finds itself caught in the crossfire between Washington and Tehran.

Since his appointment last May, the UAE has shown support for Mr Al Kadhimi.

butterfly  On his appointment, the UAE’s Foreign Ministry said it hoped to see Mr Al Kadhimi “succeed in his duties and for political and popular forces to unite in ensuring a better future for Iraq and the Iraqi people”.

Last week Mr Al Kadhimi visited Saudi Arabia where Riyadh announced a joint $3 billion fund with Iraq to spur development in the private sector.

Saudi Arabia’s investments in Iraq are expected to increase to 10 billion riyals ($2.67bn) from about two billion riyals at present.

The two countries also agreed to grow co-operation in renewable energy and maintaining stability in the global oil markets, a joint statement said.

Officials signed three new agreements – one to avoid double taxation, another for co-operation in planning for economic diversification and private sector development, and the third on financing Saudi exports.

Updated: April 4, 2021 03:55 PM

butterfly  https://www.shafaq.com/en/Iraq-News/MP-calls-for-Reparating-Faili-Kurds-Governments-did-not-do-justice-to-them  MP calls for Reparating Faili Kurds: Governments did not do justice to them 2021-04-04 09:20

Shafaq News/ MP of the Iraqi Parliament said on Sunday that the consecutive governments did not do justice to the Faili Kurds, calling for invoking reparation laws and decrees issued for them.

MP Mazen el-Faili said in a press release seen by Shafaq News Agency, “41 years ago, the Baathist regime perpetrated a heinous crime against the Faili Kurds, as he stripped them of citizenship, torn up their families, executed their youth, displaced some, and his oppressive forces threw the elders, children, and women outside the borders.”

He continued, “the post-2003 consecutive governments did not do justice to the Faili Kurds…The properties of many of them have not been handed back to them, they did not receive compensations, and the fate of many of them is still unknown.”

El-Faili demanded putting the laws and resolutions on the Faili Kurds that have been issued since 2005 into action, including those related to citizenship, IDs, and properties without any delay or procrastination.”

“Restituting the confiscated and blocked properties and funds, and granting fair compensations to the families of the martyrs and the victims.”

Faili continued, “redressing expatriated, displaced, immigrated Faili Kurds and securing their repatriation to their homelands,” calling for securing job opportunities for Faili Kurds residing in Iraq.

The lawmaker demanded the Ministry of Health, the Martyr’s Foundation, and the relevant authorities to work to disclose the fate of nearly 20 thousand unaccounted missing Faili Kurds.”

butterfly  https://www.shafaq.com/en/Report/The-curse-of-666-a-pen-stroke-that-wiped-out-thousands-of-Fayli-Kurds The curse of “666”: a pen stroke that wiped out thousands of Fayli Kurds 2021-04-03 11:09

Shafaq News/ The president of the Revolutionary Command Council, Saddam Hussain, decided to remove the Fayli Kurds and carry out mass executions against them in 1980 per Legislative Resolution 666, in which he decided, “Iraqi nationality will be revoked from every Iraqi from foreign origin if it is found that he is not loyal to the country, the people, and the supreme national and social objectives of the revolution.”

It is no longer a secret that what actually happened was an exploitation of law to justify a “genocide,” as successive events revealed an apparent conspiracy by the former regime to target the Fayli Kurds with a series of steps, sanctions, and measures that combined to produce one of the regime’s most heinous crimes.

More than 40 years after one of the epoch’s most atrocious crimes, it has become clear that the former Ba’athist regime has focused on targeting the Feyli Kurds to eliminate them; a crime that constitutes genocide under international law by treating them as traitors, denationalization of thousands, mass deportation, confiscation of property and money, imposition of divorce between spouses, and, of course, the disappearance of tens of thousands of civilians. All of that was combined to create a genocide that was kept as a secret doomed to oblivion.

Ironically, Saddam Hussein was not the first initiator or instigator this time, as former president Ahmed Hassan Al-Bakr preceded him in 1970.

butterfly  It was clear – after the direct targeting measures – that the Feylis were targeted because they were Kurds, Shiites, active within the framework of the Kurdish and Iraqi nationalist movements and because Saddam Hussein was fueling anti-Iranian ideology in preparation for war with Iran.

Since 1970, the campaign to target The Fayli Kurds has been carried out with arrests and disappearances of countless Kurds in various parts of Iraq. The deportation of large numbers of them to Iran, including ordinary citizens, academics, activists, traders, and others.

During the Iran-Iraq war, many Iraqis were forced to divorce their Fayli spouse, and oppression went so far as to prevent the Fayli Kurds from completing their postgraduate studies.

The resolution signed by Saddam Hussein in 1980 was not merely a dead letter or a resolution that was not implemented. However, it is crucial to see the text of resolution 666, which reads:

Based on the provisions of article 42 (A) of the Constitution: The Revolutionary Command Council decided at its meeting on May 7, 1980:

  1. Iraqi nationality shall be revoked from every Iraqi of foreign origin if it is found that he is not loyal to the country, the people, and the supreme national and social objectives of the revolution.
  2. The Minister of the Interior shall order the removal of all those who have disclaimed Iraqi nationality under paragraph (1) unless they are convinced on sufficient grounds that their stay in Iraq is a matter of judicial or legal necessity or the preservation of the rights of those who are not officially documented.
  3. This decision shall be implemented by the Minister of the Interior.

butterfly  The text was then followed by the signature of Saddam Hussein, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council.

The Fayli Kurds have been in the areas where they live in Iraq and some parts of Iran for decades; before establishing the modern Iraqi state itself or establishing the Ba’ath party.

They have lived in Basra, the border areas, the southern provinces, Baghdad, Al-Sulaymaniyah, and other northern regions.

Therefore, the allusion in the resolution to “foreign origin” or dependency to drop citizenship is an explicit offer of exclusion and extermination to those who are not approved by the security authorities or the ruling political system. With all the illogical implications that this means not only in Iraq but throughout the world.

That crime was “legislated” by Resolution 666, and the campaigns continued to follow the Fayli Kurds in their living areas. At the time, few people knew that these crimes were committed because no one tried to prevent or even denounce it as Saddam Hussein was then the “gatekeeper” against the Iranian revolution that overthrew the Shah’s rule in Iran, and therefore a need for some Arab countries – and many Western countries, including the United States, with which high-level coordination and military cooperation have been woven.

butterfly  The documents and events that followed the fateful decision show that in addition to stripping them of Iraqi citizenship, confiscating their possessions, displacing them to Iran, and imprisoning tens of thousands of young Kurds between the age of 17 and 35, chemical weapons were also tested on them, according to documents revealed after the overthrow of the former regime in 2003.

The exact numbers of victims are not yet known, as entire families have been wiped out or disappeared, and their fate has not yet been known.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights estimated that 65% of the 20,000 refugees in Iran are Fayli Kurds forcibly deported during the genocide. However, this UN estimate was in 2003.

The systematic destruction against the Fayli Kurds indeed stopped during the 1990s, but it was not due to the regime’s compassion. Most likely, it was because he believed that the central goal of destroying this segment had achieved its main objectives.

The Fayli Kurds’ genocide’s repercussions are not yet over, and the Iraqi state – which was established after 2003 – has not done enough to address all the consequences of resolution 666’s crimes, nor to re-embrace this segment’s people in a way that is befitting to their sacrifices that humanity has not seen alike in other countries in modern times. Though, similar strands can be captured in Germany, in the wars of minorities and races in Yugoslavia, and the barbarity of the genocide between Tutsis and Hutus in Rwanda.

butterfly  Although many of the Fayli Kurds have regained their Iraqi nationality – according to the Iraqi Ministry of Displaced in 2010, a large number have not yet been counted due to displacement and forced deportation. The property and homes of those displaced – which were lost as rewards provided by the former regime to its men and associates in various areas – have not been returned to their original “Iraqi” owners.

The fate of thousands, if not tens of thousands of Fayli Kurds, has not yet been revealed, whether those who disappeared after the campaign of indiscriminate arrests in the 1970s and 1980s or who were mass murdered in various parts of Iraq over the long years of genocide.

This situation constitutes a condemnation of the post-2003 regime, as the archives of the former Iraqi regimes have since been available to find out the facts – or most of them – and reveal the bloody period’s events.

This reality represents a great disappointment to The Iraqis in general and the Fayli Kurds in particular. They are all promised a just state according to the new Iraqi constitution, which mentions “The suffering of sectarian repression by the tyrannical junta, inspired by Iraq’s Shiites, Sunnis, Arabs, Kurds, Turkmen, and other components’ martyrs. As well as the violation of the holy cities in the popular uprising of Sha’ban, and the mass graves, the marshes, the sufferings of national oppression massacres in Halabja, Barzan, al-Anfal, and the Fayli Kurds”.

A glimmer of hope was sparked by a decision by Iraq’s supreme criminal court, which in November 2010 ruled that what happened was a “genocide” and a “crime against humanity.” The Iraqi parliament also unanimously declared at its meeting on August 1, 2011, that it was a “crime of genocide” in the complete sense of the word.

butterfly  Nevertheless, the graves of the victims have not yet been revealed. On the anniversary of the genocide on April 4, Kurdistan’s President Nechirvan Barzani issued a call, “The Iraqi Supreme Criminal Court considered that crime as genocide. So, we call on the Iraqi government to compensate the Fayli Kurds and to fulfill its legal and moral obligations towards them. We call on the Iraqi government to return nationality and confiscated property to its original owners”.

butterfly  https://www.kurdiu.org/en/b/485098 The Iraqi Parliament is waiting to send the budget law to the Presidency of the Republic

03/04/2021 – 20:10 The Deputy Speaker of the Iraqi Parliament, Bashir Al-Haddad, confirmed, on Saturday, that the 2021 Budget Law will not be sent to the Presidency of the Republic now.

Al-Haddad announced that the draft budget for 2021 will be referred to the relevant department, while it is likely that it will be approved by the Presidency of the Republic during the current week.

Al-Haddad said in a press statement, that “after the Parliament voted on the draft federal budget law for 2021, the draft law was transferred to the relevant department for review and scrutiny.”

He added, “After the budget is approved, the Parliamentary Affairs Department will check the articles of the law and match their texts to the final version before sending them to the Presidency of the Republic.”

He noted, “sending the law to the President of the Republic during this week for approval and publishing it in the Official Gazette, to enter into force after the Ministry of Finance issued instructions for implementing the budget.”

Butterfly  Al-Rafidain Bank begins launching the salaries of retirees for the month of April

Sunday 04, April 2021 19:56 | Al-Rafidain Bank announced that it will start distributing the salaries of civilian and military retirees for the current month of April.

A statement by the bank stated: The salaries were disbursed through electronic payment tools.

He added that retirees can collect their salaries from anywhere they are.

butterfly Finance begins launching the retirement salaries for the month of April / extended

Sunday 04, April 2021 19:46 Today, Sunday, the Ministry of Finance began raising the salaries of civilian and military retirees for the month of April.

In a statement, she said, “The Ministry’s Accounting Department has begun to raise the salaries of civilian and military retirees for the current month of April.”

The ministry affirmed that “the departments of the Rasheed and Rafidain Banks and the National Retirement Authority have completed the procedures for paying the salaries of civilian and military retirees for the current month of April via electronic payment cards.”

The Ministry called on all civilian and military retirees who will receive text messages to review bank branches and automated teller outlets in Baghdad and the governorates to receive their salaries.

Dave  todays Date: 4321……hmmm

butterfly  Dollar Exchange Rates In Local Markets

Market Economy News _ Baghdad Al-Eqtisadiah News publishes the exchange rates of the dollar against the Iraqi dinar on Saturday (April 3, 2021).

Sale price: 147,000 dinars per $ 100 Purchase price: 146.750 dinars per $ 100

Date added 04/03/2021 https://economy-news.net/content.php?id=24697

butterfly  I found this statement quite interesting: Parliamentary Committee Demanding The Distribution Of Salaries Of Employees In Dollars

Butterfly   Al-Jubouri: 900 billion dinars were allocated in the budget for lecturers, procedures, and contracts / expandedHead of the Parliamentary Finance Committee, Haitham Al-Jubouri, confirmed that the solution to the issue of the free lecturers is in the hands of the Ministry of Education and the Council of Ministers.

Al-Jubouri said in a televised statement, that “the budget has been subjected to a lot of pressure because it is close to the elections and the financial crisis that struck the country,” stressing that “the budget is like any law that cannot be agreed upon by everyone.”

He added, “The process of distributing funds in light of the financial deficit is difficult,” noting that “the pressure of expenditures and reducing the deficit was the goal of the Finance Committee in the budget.”

He explained, “The real deficit was 80 trillion dinars, and the Finance Committee was able to reduce it to 29 trillion within 3 months,” stressing that “95% of the blocks’ requests are in the interest of the Iraqi people.”

He pointed out that “900 billion dinars were set in the budget for the lecturers, procedures and contracts, and a text was put in place to oblige the Ministry of Education to issue direct orders to the lecturers,” noting that “the Council of Ministers can issue a decision for the lecturers.”

butterfly  He stressed that “the issue of the lecturers is resolved in the hands of the Ministry of Education and the Council of Ministers,” noting “the confirmation of contracts for those whose service exceeded the five years in all ministries, provided that the ministries’ allocations are sufficient for their confirmation.”

He pointed out that “the budget is devoid of any deductions for the salaries of employees and retirees,” stressing that “the salaries of the three presidencies decreased by 60%.”

He continued, “The total salaries of employees in 2003 amounted to 6 trillion dinars, while today, according to the draft budget that came from the government, it amounts to 54 trillion dinars,” indicating that “it is assumed that the salaries of employees do not exceed 12 trillion dinars, relative to the number of the population.”

butterfly  And that “the solution in employment can be achieved by supporting investment and the private sector and not relying on the government sector,” stressing that “any reform issue included in the budget will face charges.”

He pointed out that “the Finance Committee was able to raise the allocations for the provinces from 2.5 trillion dinars to 10 trillion dinars,” stressing that “the region’s share is 12.6% in the budget.” Sunday 04, April 2021 23:35

Butterfly   Water Resources It was decided to construct a new dam on the Tigris River

Sunday 04, April 2021 23:44 The Ministry of Water Resources decided to construct a new dam on the Tigris River, north of the Mosul Dam.

The ministry stated in a statement, today, Sunday, “Based on the directives of the Minister of Water Resources, Mahdi Rashid Al-Hamdani, and in line with the program adopted by the ministry to confront the challenges posed by climate change and the water scarcity conditions expected in the coming years, the ministerial committee consisting of a number of experts and general directors held a number of From the ministry’s formations, a meeting was held to study the construction of a dam on the Tigris River north of the Mosul Dam, in the area near the Turkish-Syrian border.

She added, “During the meeting, it was decided to conduct intensive investigations and approach a number of sober international companies in the field of dam designs to present their offers on the matter,” noting that “the committee has set a time-bound limit for completing these steps and moving quickly to the next stages.”

butterfly   The Ministry of Health provides guidance to avoid damages to the sulfur cloud coming from Italy

Sunday 04, April 2021 23:52 The Environmental Information and Awareness Department at the Ministry of Health affirmed that: “There is no need for great fear of the sulfur cloud coming from Italy towards the countries of the region and Iraq during the next twenty-four hours.”

The Environmental Awareness and Information Department advised to continue wearing masks, closing windows, adopting air-conditioning equipment and tightening the covers on water tanks to avoid any damage from the sulfur gas associated with the cloud.

Butterfly   http://wam.ae/en/details/1395302924241 Sun 04-04-2021 23:00 PM

UAE announces $3 bn investment in Iraq: Joint Statement ABU DHABI, 4th April, 2021 (WAM) — The UAE Sunday announced $3 billion investment in Iraq in a fresh bid to strengthen the economic and investment relations between the two fraternal nations.

The new investments are aimed to tap new prospects of partnerships between the two countries and accelerating socio-economic and developmental growth in support of the people of Iraq.

Within this context, the UAE and the Republic of Iraq have issued the following joint statement at the conclusion of the official visit of Dr. Mustafa Al Kadhimi, Prime Minister of Iraq, to the Emirates:

“In line with the fraternal relations and close historical ties between the UAE and brotherly Republic of Iraq, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai, and His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, met with Dr. Mustafa Al Kadhimi, Prime Minister of Iraq, who paid an official visit to the UAE.

The Iraqi premier thanked the UAE under the leadership of President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, for its support for Iraq and its people.

butterfly  The visit included a series of official meetings on broadening the prospects of cooperation between the two nations on all fronts for their common interests, with the two sides hailing the depth and strength of their fraternal relations. They reviewed the latest regional and international developments and underlined the importance of ensuring international cooperation in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and containing its economic and medical fallout on the entire world.

The Iraqi prime minister thanked the UAE for its medical support, sent to help Iraq and its people face the health crisis.

The two sides agreed to grow economic cooperation and accelerate trade and investment exchanges, urging their businessmen to exchange visits. They also agreed on establishing the Iraqi-UAE Business Council and to streamline all the measures in the service of the two nations and their peoples.

Within this context, the UAE announces it will invest $3 billion in the fraternal Republic of Iraq. The initiative aims to solidify economic and investment ties, tap fresh prospects of cooperation, and spur developmental and socio-economic growth in Iraq.

Iraq commends the UAE’s initiative to renovate Al Hadba Minaret, Great Mosque of al-Nuri and a number of churches.

The two sides also doubled down on the importance of strengthening security and defense cooperation and intelligence sharing in the fight against terrorism . They also agreed on propelling energy cooperation, specially in the fields of clean energy.

At the end of his visit, the Iraqi premier thanked the UAE, leadership, government and people, for the warm welcome and hospitality he received during the visit.”

Butterfly   https://www.shafaq.com/en/World/Worldwide-COVID-19-case-Loads-over-130-million-cases-John-Hopkins-says  Worldwide COVID-19 case Loads over 130 million cases, John Hopkins says 2021-04-04 01:35

Shafaq News/ The overall global COVID-19 caseload has surpassed the grim milestone of 130 million as the pandemic is still raging, while the deaths have surged to more than 2.8 million, according to the Johns Hopkins University.

In its latest update, the US university revealed that the current global caseload and death toll stood at 130,643,579 and 2,844,807, respectively, with a mortality rate of 2.18%.

The US has so far logged 30,668,826 cases, with 554,779 fatalities.

The North American country has been sowing the world’s highest number of cases and deaths since the beginning of the pandemic.

In Brazil, a total of 12,953,597 people have so far been found infected with the virus. The death toll in the country stood at 330,193 as per the university data.

Mexico is the third worst-hit country in the world in terms of deaths, as it has recorded 203,854 deaths as of Sunday morning.   India’s total case count currently stand third at 12,392,260.

NORV  More float juice!

NORV  Raising the exchange rate … A statement from the General Manager of the Central Bank expected a decline in the withdrawal for two reasons

22:01 4/2021/04  Baghdad Today – Follow-up  The Director General of Accounting at the Central Bank of Iraq, Ihssan Shamran, confirmed that the process of raising the exchange rate of the dollar in Iraq constituted protection for the borders without guards or weapons, referring to the smuggling of hard currency outside the country that was previously urged.

Ihssan Shamran said, in a press statement, that “the coming period will witness a decline in the withdrawal of the dollar in Iraq, especially after two clear initiatives that the Iraqi economy will recover, and that we will not need to import from neighboring countries, because Iraq will produce what it needs from the materials, such as the tomato crop, and “others.” The local production will be sold in Iraqi dinars.

Shamran added, “The process of raising the exchange rate of the dollar imposed protection at the borders without guards and without weapons, nor smuggling operations through the transfer of funds after purchasing the dollar at a low price inside Iraq.”

The Director General of Accounting at the Central Bank confirmed that the Iraqi producer and farmer needed protection, and there is no such thing as an economic collapse in Iraq, because the country possesses oil and agricultural resources.

NORV  The economic expert, Rasim Al-Aqidi, had said earlier, that “the high exchange rate of the dollar after the approval of the Iraqi budget for the year 2021, is not surprising to us, and we expected it several weeks ago,” noting that “the government adopted the framework of the floating of the dollar to legalize its sale and prevent its smuggling.” To the outside, in various ways, but at the same time it lost control of the system of price movement of goods and materials, especially basic foodstuffs.

Al-Aqidi added, in an interview with (Baghdad Today), that “the government is currently fighting a hidden war with multiple tools working abroad for the benefit of regional countries, and is seeking to strike the financial policy adopted by Baghdad, after the decision to raise the dollar exchange rate,” indicating that “the war comes.” In terms of importing materials imported illegally or obtaining discounts, as well as tax evasion.

He continued, “Under the current circumstances, the dollar has become subject to the framework of free floatation in the manner of speculation, supply and demand, which means that its rise to the top is very likely, but in return the government will not push into pumping large sums of money in an attempt to thwart what those parties and tools want.”

The economist pointed out, “The government unfortunately lost the principle of a sensitive balance between local production and its ability to cover market needs, so there is no consensus or coordination between the relevant departments in order to provide production and marketing requirements, and this is not in the government’s interest.”


NORV   noting that “the government adopted the framework of the floating of the dollar to legalize its sale and prevent its smuggling.”

NORV   “Under the current circumstances, the dollar has become subject to the framework of free floatation in the manner of speculation, supply and demand,

NORV   :Float: :Float: :Float:

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